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'''Cooperation, co-operation, or coöperation''' is the process of working or acting together, which can be accomplished by both intentional and non-intentional agents. In its simplest form it involves things working in harmony, side by side, while in its more complicated forms, it can involve something as complex as the inner workings of a human being or even the social patterns of a nation. It is the alternative to working separately in competition. Cooperation can also be accomplished by computers, which can handle shared resources simultaneously, while sharing processor time.
Cooperation, more formally speaking is how the components of a system work together to achieve the global properties. In other words, individual components that appear to be “selfish” and independent work together to create a highly complex, greater-than-the-sum-of-its-parts (
) system. Examples can be found all around us. The components in a cell work together to keep it living. Cells work together and communicate to produce multicellular organisms. Organisms form food chains and ecosystems. People form families, gangs, cities and nations. Neurons create thought and consciousness. Atoms cooperate in a simple way, by combining to make up molecules. Understanding the mechanisms that create cooperating agents in a system is one of the most important and least well understood phenomena in nature, though there has not been a lack of effort.
However, cooperation may be
(freely chosen), or even
, and consequently individuals and groups might cooperate even though they have almost nothing in common qua interests or goals. Examples of that can be found in market trade, military wars, families, workplaces, schools and prisons, and more generally any institution or organisation of which individuals are part (out of own choice, by law, or forced).
'''Communication''' is a process that allows organisms to exchange information by several methods.
. The word ''communication'' is also used in the context where little or no feedback is expected such as
, or where the feedback may be delayed as the sender or receiver use different methods, technologies, timing and means for feedback.
Communication is the articulation of sending a message, whether it be verbal or nonverbal, so long as a being transmits a thought provoking idea, gesture, action, etc. . .
Communication can be defined as the process of meaningful interaction among human beings. It is the act of passing information and the process by which meanings are exchanged so as to produce understanding.
Communication is the process by which any message is given or received through talking, writing, or making gestures.
There are auditory means, such as speaking, singing and sometimes tone of voice, and
, physical means, such as
, or the use of
Communication happens at many levels (even for one single action), in many different ways, and for most beings, as well as certain machines. Several, if not all, fields of study dedicate a portion of attention to communication, so when speaking about communication it is very important to be sure about what aspects of communication one is speaking about. Definitions of communication range widely, some recognizing that animals can communicate with each other as well as human beings, and some are more narrow, only including human beings within the parameters of human symbolic interaction.
Nonetheless, communication is usually described along a few major dimensions:
Content (what type of things are communicated)
Form (in which form)
Channel (through which medium)
'''Creativity''' (or "creativeness") is a mental process involving the generation of new
, or new associations between existing ideas or concepts.
From a scientific point of view, the products of creative thought (sometimes referred to as
) are usually considered to have both originality ''and'' appropriateness. An alternative, more everyday conception of creativity is that it is simply the act of making something new.
Although intuitively a simple phenomenon, it is in fact quite complex. It has been studied from the perspectives of
, among others. The studies have covered everyday creativity, exceptional creativity and even
. Unlike many phenomena in science, there is no single, authoritative perspective or definition of creativity. Unlike many phenomena in psychology, there is no standardized measurement technique.
Creativity has been attributed variously to
"). It has been associated with
. Some say it is a
we are born with; others say it can be taught with the application of
Although popularly associated with
, it is also an essential part of
and is important in professions such as
An '''organization''' (or '''organisation''' — see
) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals, which controls its own performance, and which has a boundary separating it from its environment. The word itself is derived from the Greek word ''ὄργανον'' (organon) meaning ''tool''. The term is used in both daily and scientific English in multiple ways. (From
'''Problem solving''' forms part of
. Considered the most complex of all
functions, problem solving has been defined as higher-order
process that requires the modulation and control of more routine or fundamental skills ([[#Reference-Goldstein |Goldstein & Levin, 1987]]). It occurs if an
does not know how to proceed from a given state to a desired goal state. It is part of the larger
process that includes
Wikipedia: Problem Solving
Regarding problem solving skills, the University of Michigan's Engineering department has a great web page delineating the various types of problems as well as the numerous skills required. For those interested in Bloom's Taxonomy, you can click on the page
10 Types of Home Problems
Self-Direction & Social Responsibility
Self-Direction—Monitoring one's own understanding and learning needs; locating appropriate resources; transferring learning from one domain to another. (From The Partnership for 21st Century Skills)
Social Responsibility—Acting responsibly with the interests of the larger community in mind; demonstrating ethical behavior in personal, workplace, and community contexts. (From The Partnership for 21st Century Skills)
Information and Media Literacy Skills—Analyzing, accessing, managing, integrating, evaluating, and creating information in a variety of forms and media. Quoting Alvin Toffler: “The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, un-learn and relearn.” Those who can un-learn and relearn are the leaders for tomorrow.”
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